The Mostly Correct History of the Earth and Universe

13.75 Billion Years Ago The Big Bang.
...a trillionth of a trillionth of a second later Universe the size of a marble.
...a billionth of a second later Gravity, electro-magnetism, the strong and weak nuclear forces are combined until Gravity splits off.
...a millionth of a second later Universe 8x the size of our solar system. Expanded faster than speed of light!
...1 second later Electro-magnetism, the strong and weak nuclear forces split.
...3 minutes later Temperature drops to a billion degrees so protons and neutrons form to create Hydrogen and Helium without Electrons.
...380,000 years later ...and God said, "Let there be light!", and there was. The universal fog lifted and the cosmic background radiation was set free.  The first Hydrogen atoms came into existance.
13.6 Milky Way galaxy formed.
13.3 Universe the size of the current Milky Way and temperature has dropped to a few thousand degrees.
13.3 - 13.1 Rate of star birth increased by a factor of 10.
13.2 Oldest and most distant object observed by Earth existed (UDFj-39546284)
12.7 1 billion stars have taken shape and formed other elements.
6.2 Dark Energy forces overcome Dark Matter forces and expansion of universe starts to accelerate.
4.7 Matter and gravity create the majority of stars we have today.
4.6 Sun sparked to life, solar system formed and Universe 65% of present size.
4.5 Planet Thea collides with Earth forming moon leaving surface a molten ball of radioactive lava.  Planet Earth has a 6-hour day.
4.4 - 4.0 Meteors rain down on thin volcanic crust; all water contained in acid atmosphere due to high temperatures.
4.0 - 3.3 Oceans forming by raining for millions of years. 90% of Earth an olive-green (iron) ocean and red skies (CO2), immense atmospheric pressure, 200+ degree surface temperature.
3.9 Age of oldest rock on earth.
3.8 - 2.5 Sun still heating up and at 75% brightness of today.
3.8 End of late heavy meteorite bombardment and sterilization process of planet.  First signs of life (Chemosynthetic bacteria) appear in oceans and begin to modify atmosphere.
3.5 Granite rock begins forming all over Earth. Liquid water probably on Mars.
3.5 Primitive one-celled organisms without a nucleus (prokaryotes) resembling bacteria and blue-green algae appear.
3.0 Oxygen begins to accumulate in atmosphere instead of oxidizing iron in the oceans.
2.7 Stromatolite's began creating the Oxygen atmosphere.
2.4 - 2.1 Huronian Ice Age (#1)
2.1 - 1.5 Most of the oxygen build up in the atmosphere takes place due to photosynthesis.
2.0 First cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes) appeared.
1.8 First organisms made up of many cells (multicellular algae) appeared.
1.5 Continents now make up 25% of the surface.  Fungi diverged from other life forms.
1.3 Earliest known land supercontinent formed (Rodinia) from smaller islands.
1.2 First land microorganisms detected.
1 Lineage that included both fungi and animals split off from other eukaryotes.
850 - 630 Million Years Ago Cryogenian Ice Age (#2). Rodinia blocks ocean currents causing chain reaction and global ice, surface temperature -40 and oceans a mile thick.
650 First sponges appear.
635 Oldest animal fossils found (Demosponges)
600 First Jellyfish appear. Fungi and plants separated. Earliest date to which fossils can be traced.
533-525 Animal life began to explode in oceans (Cambrian explosion). Worms, mollusks and arthropods appear.
530 Oxygen 30% lower than today, nothing lives on land. Seas full of soft-bodied creatures that drift in currents. First predator appears due to advent of eye sight (Odd Shrimp = 4ft).  Arthropods (future insects and spiders) develop to combat the predators eyesight.
510 First vertebrate thumbnail fish appear with backbone (Ostracoderm) no fins, acts as scavenger.
500 Overall oxygen concentration in atmosphere levels off.
478 Cephalaspis acting as a grazer in the oceans.
475 First mosses appear.
460 - 430 Andean-Saharan Ice Age (#3)
450 Ozone layer thick enough to protect land organisms.
439 Ordovician-Silurian Extinction - Glaciers froze and melted causing sea level changes - 60% marine (25% families).
438 First plants appear (Cooksonia).
430 Bronto Scorpio (Giant scorpions 3 feet long with gills and stinger size of fist), urchins filter water, 20 foot long squid ancestor. Cephalaspis develops first sense of touch by having sensors to sense predators and the most complex brain of the time. Cephalaspis learns to go to inland fresh water to breed safely.
420 First cockroaches, dragonflies and scorpions began to live on land.
408 First amphibians appear.
400 Fire appears on Earth as oxygen is high enough at 13%.
400-373 Giant Sea Scorpion (Pterygotid Eurypterid - 10 foot long) exists.
385 Plants develop seeds.
380 First insects appear.
370 First trees appear.
364 Late Devonian Extinction - Unknown cause - 57% marine (22% families).
360 Oxygen 20% lower than today, sharks in ocean have teeth, 15ft fish exist (Hyneria)
350 - 260 Karoo Ice Age (#4)
340 - 280 Arthropleura was an 8.5 foot long centipede with 30 pairs of legs.
325-286 Mushrooms as we recognize them probably evolved (Palaeoancistrus).
320 First reptiles appear since eggs are hard enough to be laid on land.
300 Oxygen in the atmosphere is at its peak.
300 - 250 Giant insects of all kinds exist. World of tropical swamps. Meganeura was a dragonfly with a 2.5 foot wingspan.
280 - 180 Pangaea supercontinent exists.
251 Permian-Triassic Extinction - Asteroid? Volcano? Gamma Rays? - 84% marine (53% families) and 70% land.
250 Abrupt drop in Oxygen levels.  Fungi become the dominant form of life on the planet.
250 Frogs appear (Triadobatrachus massinoti)
230 - 65 Dinosaurs exist.
220 - 65 Pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus northropi was the largest flying animal ever at 550 lbs with a 36 foot wingspan.
214 - 199 End Triassic Extinction - Lava flows that started Pangaea's split - 52% marine (22% families).
208 First mammals appear.
200 Turtles appear.
155 First birds appear.
153 Supersaurus the longest dinosaur ever existed at 112 feet and 40 tons.
145 The tallest dinosaurs existed known as Sauroposeidon were 60 foot tall.
140 First flowers appear.
125 Marsupials appear.
112 - 97 Largest carnivorous dinosaur existed (Spinosaurus - 59 foot in length, 23 tons
112 Super Crocodile (Sarcosuchus) existed with a length of 39 feet long.
100 Bees appear.
97 Heaviest dinosaur lived (Argentinosaurus - 110 tons, 98 feet).
90 Snakes appear (two legged).
80 Squid, ammonites, mosasaurs, giant turtles and plesiosaurs in the oceans.
70 Seas drained from North America by uplift.  Giant turtle exists (Archelon ischyros) 16 feet across at flippers. Giant Frog exists (Beelzebufo ampinga - 16 inches long and 10 pounds)
70 - 65 Mosasaurus was the biggest predator in the oceans at 15 feet long.
69 Rocky Mountains pushed up.
65 Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction - several mile wide asteroid - 47% marine (16% families) and 18% land including the dinosaurs.
65 Rodents appeared.
63 Primates appeared.
60 - 45 Titanna Boa - 43 feet long, wide as a trash barrel, 1 ton and found in Columbia.
55 Horses began to evolve (Hyracotherium)
50 Whales enter the ocean from land.
49 - 44 Giant worker ants (Formicium giganteum) were 1-3cm and on the rainforest floors.
47 Oldest human descendent primate fossil found (Darwinius masillae)
45 - 36 Andrewsarchus was the largest carnivorous land mammel ever at 6.6 feet at shoulder and 15 foot in length.
40 - Present Current Ice Age (#5)
40 Canidae (dogs) appeared.
37 - 23 Giant rhinoceros, Paraceratherium orgosensis, was 18 feet tall.
36 Giant Penguin exists (Icadyptes salasi - 5 foot tall)
33 Deer appeared.
25 - 1.5 Giant Shark (Carcharocles megalodon) got as large as 67 feet and weighed 103 tons.
20 - 5 Epicyon haydeni was the largest dog-like animal ever at 370lbs.
13 Oldest seahorse fossils found (Hippocampus sarmaticus). Giant Sperm Whale (Leviathan melvillei) had 14 inch teeth and was 43-59 feet long.
11 Felines appeared.
10 Apes dominant with over 50 different species.
8 Grasslands began to replace forests; most apes die off.
7 - 3 Nuralegus rex was the largest rabbit ever at 51lbs.
6 - 7 Earliest known hominid fossils (Sahelanthropus).
6 Largest flying bird ever existed (Argentavis magnificens - 28 foot wingspan, 11 foot length, 6.6 foot tall and 180 lbs)
5 - 100,000 YA Giant Gorilla exists (Gigantopithecus).
4.8 - 4,000 YA Wooly Mammoth’s (Mammuthus primigenius) exist.
4.2 Australopithecus anamensis found in Lake Turkana, Kenya, 1995.
4.0 - 2.0 Giant Rat exists (Josephoartigasia monesi).
3.9 - 2.9 Australopithecus afarensis (nicknamed “Lucy”) found in Ethiopia, 1974.
3.67 Little Foot human ancestor (Australopithecus).
3.5 Kenyanthropus platyops ("Flat faced Man") - probable first bipedal descendent of man.
3.3 Earliest evidence of stone tools found at Lomekwi 3 site.
3 Current Ice Age intensifies and spreads ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere.
3 Solar system enters Local Bubble of Hydrogen gas.
3 - 500,000 YA Giant hyenas exist (Pachycrocuta brevirostris)
3.0 - 22,000 Giant Bison was 8.5 feet at shoulder. (Bison latifrons)
2.5 - 1.7 Homo ergaster ("Working Man")
2.3 - 1.4 Homo habilis (“Handy Man”). First brain expansion; is believed to have used stone tools.
2.1 Super Volcano under Yellowstone erupts as one of the 5 largest volcanic eruptions in history.
2 Nebraskan glaciation period.
2.0 - 8,000 YA Giant ground sloth exists (Megatherium)
1.9 Homo rudolfensis (KNM-ER 1470); very large brain.
1.8 Oldest surface on earth formed (Israel's Negev Desert)
1.8 - 400,000 Homo erectus (“Upright Man”). Brain size twice that of Australopithecine species.
1.8 - 600 YA Giant Eagle exists (Harpagornis moorei)
1.7 Homo erectus leaves Africa - fire users
1.5 - 10,000 YA Giant Beaver exists (Castoroides ohioensis).
1.3 Yellowstone erupts violently again.
1 - 10,000 YA Giant Saber toothed cats exist (Smilodon populator)
800,000 Early man gains control over fire.
800,000 - 12,500 Years Ago Giant Bear exists (Arctodus simus)
780,000 Giant Hippo exists.
640,000 Yellowstone erupts violently again.
410,000 - 380,000 Kansan glaciation period.
350,000 Proto-Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe.
300,000 Homo erectus /  well established in Europe.
200,000 - 125,000 Illinoian glaciation period.
196,000 - present Homo sapiens ("Wise Man"), voice box develops and speech begins.
130,000 - 24,000 Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal)
126,000 - 7,700 Giant deer exists with antlers 14 foot across (Megaloceros giganteus)
100,000 First modern Homo sapiens in South Africa. Giant Camel (Titanotylopus) exists (11 foot at shoulder). Dogs probably domesticated and seperated from Wolf lineage.
80,000 - 12,000 Homo floresiensis ("Man of Flores")
70,000-10,000 Wisconsin glaciation period.
70,000 Neanderthal man (use of fire and advanced tools).
62,000 Homo sapiens begin to inhabit Australia.
60,000 Neanderthal’s known to have advanced speech.
50,000 Homo sapiens finally begin to move past stone knives.  Evidence of eating fish, harpoons, music, needles and more advanced tools begin to appear.
50,000 First Neanderthal grave sites found.
40,000 Neanderthal’s (Stone tipped spears).  Yellowstone due for an eruption; we are now 40,000 years overdue for an event 2,500 times the size of Mount St. Helens.  First musical instrument (flute) found in Germany made of vulture bones and mammoth tusks.
37,000 Neanderthal man replaced by later groups of Homo sapiens (i.e., Cro-Magnon man, etc.).
35,000 Oldest human figurine.
27,000 Sexual stone carvings of women appear.
20,000 Cro-Magnons replaced by later cultures. New York 5000 feet under ice.
17,000 Migrations across Bering Straits into the Americas.
13,500 - 12,900 Clovis people inhabit North America.
12,900 - 11,100 Bad environment wipes out many large species.
12,500 First humans in Minnesota.
12,000 Semi-permanent agricultural settlements in Old World. Largest owl existed (Ornimegalonyz oteroi 3.6 feet on ground and 20 lbs)
10,200 Oldest boat (canoe of Pesse)
7,800 Last giant Mammoth dies (Mammuthus columbi)
7,500 Predynastic Egyptian cultures develop.
7,000 Permanent agriculture begins.
6,500 Earliest known civilization arises in Sumer (Iraq).
6,250 Earliest recorded date in Egyptian calendar.
5,800 Earliest recorded date in Jewish calendar. Oldest stone structures found in Malta (Mediterranean).
5,500 First phonetic writing appears.
5,000 Sumerians develop a city-state civilization. Copper used by Egyptians and Sumerians. Western Europe is neolithic, without metals or written records.
5,000 - 3,500 Stonehenge created.
4,700 Great Pyramid at Giza created.
4,100 Horses domesticated.
2,800 First Olympic Games
2,700 Oldest Marijuana stash located in Gobi desert.
1,600 English language formed.
510 Tallest bird in history made extinct (Dinornis maximus - 12 foot tall and 610 lbs)
460 - 160 Little Ice Age
360 Heaviest bird in history made extinct (Aepyornis - 10 foot tall and 1,120 lbs)
300 Humans begin to modify the atmosphere.
230 Humans begin to use electricity.
Today Universe is a 156 billion light years across and is 20% larger than we can actually see.
18 Years From Now April 13th, 2029 Asteroid Apophis (2 football fields wide) a mere 18,300 miles from Earth.
25 April 13th, 2036 Asteroid Apophis has a 1/250,000 chance of hitting Earth.
57 2068 Asteroid Apophis has a 1/3,000,000 chance of hitting Earth.
869 March 16, 2880 Asteroid 1950DA (1km wide) has a 1/300 chance of hitting Earth.
1,000 - 100,000 Star named Betelgeuse will supernova, we'll see star as bright as the full moon for months to years.
16,000 Vega is now the north star.
18,000 - 50,000 Next Ice Age glacial period begins.
25,000 Arecibo message reaches it's destination.
27,800 Polaris is now the north star.
50,000 Possible reply from Arecibo message to be expected.
250,000 An object more than a kilometer wide has probably struck Earth again.
1 Million Years From Now Star named "Gleise 710" reaches closest point to us and brings comet storms.
2 Pioneer 10 (launched in 1972) passes near Aldebaran.
5 Solar system exits Local Bubble of Hydrogen gas.
40 Phobos crashes into Mars.
50 Atlantic has widened. Super volcano currently under Yellowstone is now under Minnesota. Africa has collided with Europe (closing the Mediterranean). Australia has merged with SE Asia. California has slid up the coast to Alaska.
100 Sun 1% brighter, temperature 10°C higher, Saturn's rings disappear.
200 Temperature 20°C higher.  East coast of US collides with Europe; New York now mountains.
226 Sun completes another orbit around Milky Way's center.
250 America's merge with Afro-Eurasia reducing the (formerly growing) Atlantic to an inland sea.  World will one again be like ancient Pangea.
300 Binary Pulsar PSR1913+16 collapses in a spectacular supernova. Temperature 30°C higher.
400 Temperature 40°C higher.
500 Shortage of CO2 causes all plants to die. Temperature 50°C higher.
600 Sun 5% brighter.
750 Sagitarius dwarf galaxy eaten by Milky Way.
1 Billion Years From Now Life on Earth ends as oceans and atmosphere boil away.
1.1 Sun 10% brighter.
1.3 Surface temperature reaches 100°C and pressure doubles.
2 Moon no longer helpful in stabilizing our axis.
2.3 Solar system makes its tenth orbit around the galactic center.
3 Sun reaches hottest surface temperature on Main Sequence. Andromeda Galaxy collides with Milky Way.
3.5 Mercury suffers close encounter with Venus and is lost. Earth much like Venus but with water rich 100-bar atmosphere.
3.6 Neptune's moon, Triton, will collide with atmosphere or break-up into rings like Saturn.
4.8 Earth surface temperature 1330°C
5 Sun enters Red Giant phase, Earth a ball of magma.
7.55 Venus now in Earth's orbit and Earth at 1.38 AU.
7.68 Sun engulfs Venus and Earth. Mars spared at 2.25 AU.
11 Youngest globular clusters have now evaporated away.
50 We can only see galaxies that are our closest neighbors.
100 Universe will be dark and lonely but probably still hospitable to life.
1 Trillion Years From Now All stars dead.
10^17 Passing stars rip planets from stellar corpses.
10^18 Galaxies dissolve.
10^20 Orbits of planets decay via gravitational radiation.
10^30 The Black Hole Age.
10^31 Universe filled with super massive black holes. Protons decay.
10^32 Dead stars evaporate via proton decay.
10^34 All carbon-based life forms become extinct (due to lack of atoms).
10^35 Proton and neutron will decay if current GUT theories correct.
10^65 Stellar-mass black holes evaporate! Ordinary matter liquefies due to quantum tunneling.
10^66 Solar mass black holes evaporate via Hawking process.
10^97 Galaxy-sized black holes will also evaporate.
10^100 Super massive black holes evaporate.
10^110 The Dark Age no known process which will ever change things.
10^122 Protons decay via Hawking process.
10^1500 Ordinary matter surviving GUTs or Hawking process, decays into iron.
10^10^26 All iron nuclei collapse into black holes.


Precambrian Eon
(4500 to 544)
Hadean (4500 to 3800)
Archaean (3800 to 2500)
Proterozoic Era
(2500 to 544)
Paleoproterozoic (2500 to 1600)
Mesoproterozoic (1600 to 900)
Neoproterozoic (900 to 544)
   Vendian(650 to 544)
(544 to today)
Paleozoic Era
(544 to 245)

Cambrian (544 to 505)
Tommotian (530 to 527)
Ordovician (505 to 440)
Silurian (440 to 410)
Devonian (410 to 360)
Carboniferous (360 to 286)
   Mississippian (360 to 325)
   Pennsylvanian (325 to 286)
Permian (286 to 245)

Mesozoic Era
(245 to 65)
Triassic (245 to 208)
Jurassic (208 to 146)
Cretaceous (146 to 65)
Cenozoic Era
(65 to today)
Tertiary (65 to 1.8)
   Paleocene (65 to 54)
   Eocene (54 to 38)
   Oligocene (38 to 23)
   Miocene (23 to 5 mya)
   Pliocene (5 to 1.8)

Quaternary (1.8 mya to today)
   Pleistocene (1.8 mya to 11,000 yrs)
   Holocene (11,000 years to today)